Iberia Forever

Guram Maisuradze

FROM  THE HISTORIOGRAPHY  OF  GEORGIAN-ARMENIAN  RELATIONS

Summary:   Russian

The subject of our resaerch has various interpretations in historiography. Opposite evalution of the facts and events in interpretations of one and the same sources have long been attracting the interest of the readers. This paradox needs scientific explanation. The given work is the first attempt of such an explanation.

The tendentious interpretation of the history of Georgian-Armenian relations originates mainly from the most influential representative of the old Armenian historiography Movses Khorenats. The further development of tendentious interpretation of Georgian history was the result of external factor attaining the mosts negative quality after the all-powerful government of Russians in the Caucasus, the echo of which sounds strongly even today.

The "Golden Age" of Armenian historiography started (the 5 th century) when Armenian state suffered the great defeat (Romans abolished national government in western Armenia in 391 and Persians in the east part of the country in 428) and the national self-idenification attained the decisive function. In this situation the supreme patriotic duty of Armenian historians was to show in full greantess, even though exaggerated, the history of Armenia, to unite the nation for liberation movement and strengthen the spirit of Armenian people. As a result, the idea of uniqueness of Armenia and Armenians was firmly established in medieval Armenian historiography and had become one of the main sources of defanding shaken national honour.

The idea of the glorification of Armenia reaches its climax in "The History of Armenia" by Movses Khorenats where the idea of Armenians' uniqueness gains conceptual character. To reach the aim the author of the history is not only coloring the facts and events but in some cases even falsifies them. The chronicle disregards the Caucasian countries and peoples (N. Berdzenishvili) and denotes them with generalgeographical term "the north" and "norterners". Thus, apparently he tries to make readers belive that the Caucasus is a country subordinated to Armenia. That is why in account Kartli is a part of Armenia 286 287 and Georgian authorities are the officials of the Armenian kingdom. More than that according to Movses khorenats the Caucasus together with kartli had been a country politically and culturally (meaning spiritual culture) subordinated to Armenia both in pre-Christian and Christian periods. The concept seems to be quite attractive for the Armenian political circles trying to rebuilt abolished statehood. These circles must have promoted the concept and established it in the and its further development was also supported and encouraged by advantageous distribution of forces in the Caucasus conditioned by exterior factors. For example, Armenia as the country bearer of the oriental traditions was considered by Sasanian as a support of their policy in the region. Besides, the dogmatic disagreement of the Armenian Church was a significant factor of the policy of Iran. The well known Persian church countcil in Kteziphon in 614 announced Armenian religion as obligatory for his Christian subjects which caused the wide extension of the pretensions of the Armenian Church hierarchs. Armenian historiography was ready in trying to picture not only the history of the Armenian Church but also the political of the Caucasus in the given frame. The similar situation can be witnessed in the period of caliphate – Bizantium opposition where the authorities of Armenian state was restored under the aegis of Arabs. Sharing the political interests of their protectors, Armenian political forces started the fight for gaining the whole Caucasus. The Armenian historiography of those days created the impression that Armenian kings-Bagratunshad an absolute power in the Caucasus. Only after weakening and gradual disappearance of the Armenian kingdom the arrogant tone and hegemonic tendentious of the medieval Armenian authors gradually died down and changed to the opposite. The attempts raising doubts about the importance of Georgia's Christian past and of belittle it, had been reasonably critcized already in "The Life of St. Nino" (the monument was dated earlier to the 7 th -9 th centuries, and according to current investigations to the II half the 5 th century) which is a part the collection "Moktsevai kartlisai" (The Conversion of Kartli). The author of the Georgian historiograpic account concludes that the contribution of Kartli and St. Nino towards Eastern Christianity is much more important than that of Armenia and its enlightener Grigorius the special role of Kartli before the dispersion of Christianity was determined beforehead. Armenian miafor himself (a person who looks after the sancuary) from Dvini admits this priority oof kartli. So, when the Christian faith had been conceived in kartli, Armenia became wholly depended on it, as the Church of Armenia was founded on the holy bones of those martyrs (i. m. ripsimians) who were converted by St. Nino ans had crossed the frontier with her (K. Kekelidze).

In the middle of the 11 th century, when the medieval Armenian state underwent the final collapse and Georgia became the centre uniting whole Caucasus, the creaion of ideological and moral basis for justifying the leading role of Georgia in history of the Caucasus was necessary. It mast not have been accidental that in the 11 century some Georgian historians (Leonti Mroveli, Juansher, the author of "The Chronicle of Georgia" and Sumbat the son of David) wrote different parts of the country history from the ancient times till the 11 century almost simultaneously displaying the whole picture of the centuries- long heroic straggle the creation and development of the united Christian world of the Caucasus.

In the process of uniting the Caucasus, determined by the political aims of the vanguard country, Georgian historiography (Leonti and others (creates the model of the Caucasian history which should have overcome the Armenian estrangement to fight freely with Byzantinium for the heritage of Armenia. That's why instead of criticizing M. Khorenats' concept, that had no practical importance for those period, Leonti Mroveli corrected his main statements and treatments of the facts and opposed his own concept of the Caucasian peoples' kinship and brotherhood to Armenian historians' expansion. Thus, Leonti gained not only moral priority over "The father of Armenian history", but met well the demands of the time. The political leader had to the cultural leader as well. So, Leonti speaks about the ancient origin (7-8 centuriel-older in comparison with Armenian script) of Georgian script and literature and proves the cultural leadership of newly establishd ancient Georgian state had from the very beginning. Leonti draws the attention of the readers to other priorities of Caucasian political Leader as well.

When the great part of the historical Armenia became a part of the Georgian centralized monarchy, the history of Armenia had become a part of Georgian history as well. Because of this the interest of Armenian historians towards history of Georgia had grown and the attitude became warmer. Naturally, there was no need for making special comments on the Armenian historiography of the 12 th -13 th centuries at that time.

With the downfall of Georgian history was completely changed. The reason, among other circumstances,was the colonial policy of Tsarism. Besides the violent repression of the Georgian resistance the main figures of this policy 288 289 were trying to wipe out its history and culture. Russian beaurocracy found Armenia and its bourgeoisie to be their supporters in carrying out this unhonourable job. Supported by the empire administration, Armenian historiography, expressing the interests of Armenian bourgeoisie, started changing the Caucasian history diminishing the value of Georgian history and culture; consequently, wide proragation of Khorenats' ideas about Armenians' "Exceptionality" and erritorial pretensions. From the second half of the 19 th century distortion of the Georgian history in the pretensions. From the second half of the 19 th century distortion of the Georgian history in the Armenian historiography gained almost systematic character causing the sharp reaction and activities of Georgian national liberation movement. The united campaign of Russian and Armenian historiography against Georgian mentality aimed at the oreation of suitable international opinion favored by Russia; it justified the annexation of Georgian, as a humane action and favored by Armenia which was to show that historic Georgia with its whole territory, population and political past belonged to Armenia. Any subject of Georgian-Armenian relations during almost two centuries of Russian domination served this main political aim in Armenian historiography. From this point of view bourgeois and Soviet Armenian historiography have mostly the same positions. The attack on Georgian history started at the beginning of the 19 th century and gained its speed in the 40s of the 20th century; it developed into well planed and organized attack, embracing almost all fields and trends of investigation.

On this stage of investigation Armenian historiography basing on absolutely absurd maps of Dashnaks’ party aimend to prove that the northern part of so calles "Great Armenia" traced the exixtence of Armenian civilization in the place of Georgian one. The attitude and position can be well seen in the investigations dealing with historical geography, toponimy, political history, chronicles, the history of art, the history of culture etc. The critical investigation of these works has proved that the Armenian scientists tried to reach the aim by distortion of the historical facts and events. For instance, Georgian anchitectural monuments in Tao-Klardgeti (historical province of Georgia, now in Turkey) and Kvemo Kartli (one of the regions of east Georgia) were declared to be Armenian because they were built by Chalcedonit Armenians of Georgian canon and declare historical persons mentioned in the inscriptions of these monuments or in historical sources as Armenians speaking Georgian; the magic formula "Armenian Chalcedonits of Georgian right" became a universal means for overcoming the obstacles on the way of distortion of the authentic records.They have „forgotten“ that in Tao-Klardgeti not only architecture was Georgian but also rich literature, manuscripts, miniatures, monumental paintings, engravings and all of them were united by the centuries-old common Georgian culture development process to say nothing of hisorical reasons. The same attitude can be traced in the treatment of the history of other regions of east Georgia and historic epochs.

Thus, the tendency of total Armenisation of past Georgia runs through the whole Soviet Armenian historiography.

The serious demerit of the Soviet and current Armeniam historiography is also, almost total ignoring of the Georgian historiography and its data.

After establishing independent Georgian and Russian states in the 90s of the last century, feeling absolute freedom, some representatives of Armenian historiography openly unveiled their far going geopolitical interests. Instead of critical study of the past on the ground of the history destroyed by elder generation, they began the propagation of Dashnaks’ ideas and had exceeded all limits. But the positive tendentions can also be viewed in the Armenian historiography lately. For example even Mr. P. Muradian, notorious in Georgia for his joung colleague S. Karapetian's exceeding all limits and explained it as lack of knowledge. Dispite this evaluation, Muradian's position is realistic and pozitive. Comparatively modern interpretation of the 19 th -20 th centuries Georgian-Armenian relations by the head of the Institute of History of the Academy of Armenia, Ash. Melkonyan presented in Tbilisi is welcomed, indeed.

It is obvious that interpretation of the facts enables us make right conclusions. That is why Iv. Javakhishvili used to say that each people should know the true and not falsified history of his nation.

 

guram maisuraZe

 

qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis istoriografiidan

2006

 

redaqtorisagan

guram maisuraZis wigni – `qarTul-somxuri urTierTobis istoriografiidan~, sayuradRebo naSromia, sadac ori mezobeli xalxis urTierTobebze dawerili TiTqmis yvela nawarmoebia ganxilul-Sefasebuli uZvelesi droidan dRemde. avtori vrclad moixilavs Zveli somexi istorikosebis tendenciur Tu gazviadebul cnobebs, romlebic somxeTis saxelmwifos upiratesobas amtkicebdnen amierkavkasiaSi da mis gareTac. g. maisuraZe axsnas uZebnis am tendenciurobas.

somexi istorikosebis sapirispirod aqve Seswavlilia Sua saukuneebis qarTvel istorikosTa cnobebi da Sefasebulia isini, rogorc sapasuxo reaqcia.

calke TavebSia ganxiluli XIX da XX saukuneebis somxur-qarTul urTierTobaTa amsaxveli literatura. obieqturad axsnili da Sefasebulia cilobisa Tu dapirispirebis faqtebi; aRsaniSnavia avtoris zomieri toni paeqrobisas, rac mis argumentacias damajereblobas matebs. sasurveli iqneboda am wignis gamocema ucxo enazec.

d. berZeniSvili

5.07.05

Sesavali

xalxTa istoriul urTierTobaTa Tema yovelTvis aqtualuri iyo amierkavkasiur istoriografiaSi, rac, albaT, TviT am qveynis warsulis TaviseburebebiT unda yofiliyo ganpirobebuli. kavkasia ZvelTaganve msoflio mniSvnelobis savaWro da samxedrostrategiuli magistralebis gzasayars warmoadgenda, ramac is aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis samyaros damakavSirebel oqros xidad aqcia. gangebis mier kuTvnilma am erTob sapatio da, amasTanave, saxifaTo rolma kavkasia did saxelmwifoTa sacilobel qveynad gawira. kavkasiis dauflebisaTvis brZolis istoriis faqtebi cxadyofs, rom mis gasakontroleblad msoflios did saxelmwifoTa metoqeoba adgilobriv xalxebs, Tu erTi mxriv, politikuri orientaciis mixedviT erTmaneTisadmi dapirispirebul nawilebad TiSavda, meore mxriv, saerTo mtris faqtori maT gaerTianebisakenac ubiZgebda. es situacia mTeli sisruliT aisaxa amierkavkasiur istoriografiaSi, sadac erTimeoris gverdiT Tanaarsebobda da adamianTa cnobierebaze zemoqmedebda, rogorc kavkasiis gaerTianebis idea, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli saerTo tendenciebis gamovleniT, ise mis sapirispirod, hegemonisturi miswrafebebis Sesabamisad gaazrebuli faqtebisa da movlenebis ara marto subieqturi, aramed zogjer, gayalbebuli warmodgenebi. pirvelma yvelaze mkafio gamovlineba Sua saukuneebSi, leonti mrovelis eTnogenetikur koncefciaSi pova Tavisi adgili, xolo meore, upiratesad Zveli somxuri istoriografiis damaxasiaTebel movlenad iqca.

kavkasiis istoriis gadmocemisas istoriografiaSi gamJRavnebuli erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba, ra Tqma unda, obieqturi da subieqturi mizezebiT iyo ganpirobebuli da saSinao da sagareo politikuri faqtorebis rTuli gadaxlarTvis Sedegs warmoadgenda, sadac sagareo faqtori, kavkasiis geografiuli mdebareobis gamo, mainc gansakuTrebul, TiTqmis gadamwyvet rols TamaSobda am qveynis istoriaSi da istoriografiamac, aseT viTarebaSi, politikuri brZolis iaraRis mniSvneloba SeiZina. rogorc, Cvens droSi, mTiani yarabaRis problemebis gamwvavebam gviCvena, konfliqturi situaciis warmoqmnaSi arcTu umniSvnelo wili edo istorikosTa erTi nawilis mier istoriuli faqtebis tendenciur gaSuqebas. aseve, afxazTa mier gamogonili istoriuli suraTi daedo safuZvlad afxazuri sazogadoebis gauTviTcnobierebeli nawilis Cabmas imperiis gegmebis realizaciaSi. igive suraTis mowmeni varT Sida qarTlSi datrialebuli ambebisas da sxv.

saqarTvelosa da somxeTis, masTan erTad ki, saerTod, kavkasiis istoriis kvlevis politizirebam bevri arakompetenturi piri miizida da miatmasna mecnierebas, ris Sedegadac istoriis subieqtur gaazrebaSi ukve privitivizmmac gaidga Rrma fesvebi. samwuxaroa, agreTve, rom naCqarevi daskvnebi da zogjer susti profesiuli momzadebis mizeziT damaxinjebuli istoriuli suraTia asaxuli saSualo da umaRlesi skolebis saxelmZRvaneloebSi, rac axalgazrdobaSi arajansaRi ganwyobilebis gavrcelebis umTavresi wyaro xdeba. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sagangaSoa viTareba amierkavkasiis istoriuli geografiis mecnieruli kvlevis saqmeSi. mdgomareobas isic amZimebs, rom istoriul geografias, rogorc istoriul mecnierebas, zogan (magaliTad, azerbaijanSi) aravi- Tari tradicia ara aqvs. aseT dros mezobelTa gamocdilebisa da miRwevebis gauTvaliswinebloba ukve winaswar ganapirobebs mkvlevris gardauval marcxs. amierkavkasiis istoriis subieqturi gaazrebis mizezebis Ziebisas ar SeiZleba SeumCneveli darCes is sagulisxmo faqtic, rom am tendencias somxeTSi istoriuli tradiciac kvebavs. Zvel somxur wyaroebs aseTi mimarTuleba namdvilad axasiaTebT. sagareo faqtoris zegavleniT somxeTisaTvs Tavsmoxveuli ideologiuri politika sazogadoebis zeda fenebSi xSirad erovnuli interesebis gamomxatveladac aRiqmeboda, rac saTanado asaxvas povebda saistorio mwerlobaSi. raRaca msgavsi xdeba Tanamedrove somxur istoriografiaSic, sadac obieqturi, mecnieruli kvlevis sazianod, gansakuTrebiT, istoriuli geografiis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas, upiratesoba TiTqmis, yovelTvis politikur mosazrebebs eZleva.

XX s-is 90 wlebis dasawyisSi damoukidebeli qarTuli da somxuri saxelmwifoebis aRmocenebam, bunebrivia, istorikosebs Soris politikuri koniunqturisagan Tavisufali, gulwrfeli saubris saWiroeba warmoSva saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi dagrovili problemebis garSemo. Tavisuflebis pirobebSi saubris msurveli sakmaod bevri aRmoCnda. perioduli gamocemebis, ZiriTadad, gazeTebis furclebi aWrelda momzadebuli Tu moumzadebeli avtorebis, specialistebisa Tu araspecialistebis statiebiT. visac rogor SeeZlo ise icavda sakuTari istoriis Rirsebas. amaSi sagangaSo, ra Tqma unda, araferia. WeSmariteba xom kamaTSi unda daibados. mTavaria mokamaTesTan keTilmosurne damokidebulebis SenarCuneba da sxvisi azris pativiscemis unaris gamomJRavneba, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca saqme istoriul mezoblebTan urTierTobas exeba, miT umetes, aTeuli saukuneebiT erTmaneTTan umWidroesad dakavSirebul saqarTvelosa da somxeTis istorias. didi ivane javaxiSvili jer kidev, XX s-is dasawyisSi werda: `SeuZlebelia qarTveli eris istorias swerde da amasTan ar icnobde da ar afasebde somexTa Zvel da mdidar istorias. marto geografiuli mezobloba rodi akavSirebda qarTvels da somexs. am moZme erTa kavSirurTierToba ara marto aTeul saukuneebs iTvlis, aramed sixarulisa da Wiris TiTqmis ganuyoflobas iTvaliswinebs. istoriuli bedis erTgvarovneba imaSi poulobs Tavis gamoxatulobas, rom arasdros erTi eris bedniereba meoris xarjze ar momxdara da yovelTvis erTi da igive saerTo mteri hyavdaT da Tavs yovelTvis erTad icavdnen* . didi winapris es Segoneba dResac aqtualurad JRers da urTierTsasikeTo TanamSromlobisaken mogviwodebs.

warmodgenili naSromi ar iTvaliswinebs dasmul sakiTxze qarTuli da somxuri istoriografiis srul mimoxilvas. is mxolod erTi SedarebiT viwro problemiT ifargleba da ukve xsenebuli im cnobili tendenciis aRmocenebisa da ganviTarebis pirobebis Seswavlas cdilobs, romelic didi xania xels uSlis ara marto qarTul-somxuri istoriuli urTierTobis obieqtur gaSuqebas, aramed mTlianad amierkavkasiis istoriis realuri suraTis warmosaxvasac. am TvalsazrisiT, yuradReba, ZiriTadad, somxur istoriografiazea gamaxvilebuli, ramdenadac aseTi tendenciis ganviTarebisaTvis Sesaferisi politikuri niadagis arseboba somxeTis istoriul pirobebSi bevrad ufro TvalsaCinod ikveTeba.

ixileT srulad

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